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By Oscar E. Swan

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Lûs-û1: lesie Lsg. miûr-û1: mierze DLsg. miûst-û1: mieÊcie Lsg. In such words, the morphophonemic stem which one needs to establish in order to describe this shift is, statistically speaking, isolated and exceptional in the declension of the word. The û: a alternation is prominently visible in the past tense of verbs with infinitives in -eç (-û2-ç), with e occurring in the masc. pers. pl. forms, before softened ∏: l: widzieç see mieç have widzia∏ he saw mia∏ he had widzieli they (masc. pers. ) saw mieli they (masc.

While all other forms will contain a: wiara belief, DLsg. wierze, stem wiûr-. 4. Mobile vowels and the o: ó and ´: à shifts can occur before the ending -Ø in the Gpl. of nouns in -a or in the NAsg. of nouns in -Ø: a. Mobile vowels: matka mother, Gpl. matek, stem matØk-; miot∏a broom, Gpl. miote∏, stem miotØ∏-; wesz louse, Gsg. wszy, stem wØsz-; poszwa pillow-case, Gpl. poszew, stem poszØw-. Consonants that soften (to R2) before the mobile vowel e (from ′) usually appear as hard when the mobile vowel is absent: panna maiden, Gpl.

MORPHOPHONEMICS (SOUND CHANGES) The vowel-shifts o: ó and ´: à often occur before devoiced consonants, and before j and ∏, before the suffix -Øk-. When these changes occur, they tend to be generalized to all forms of the word, including forms where Ø is realized as e, and where consequently one would not expect the shift: Regular shift: g∏ow-Øk-a: g∏ówka head-dim. boj-Øk-a: bójka fight-dim. wst´˝-Øk-a: wstà˝ka ribbon-dim. : g∏ow-Øk-Ø: g∏ówek Gpl. boj-Øk- Ø: bójek Gpl. wst´˝-Øk- Ø: wstà˝ek Gpl. Compare with d´t-Øk-a: d´tka inner tube, where the shift does not take place before the originally unvoiced t.

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