By ROSA VALLEJOS YOPÁN
This dissertation is a finished grammar of Kokama-Kokamilla (KK), as spoken by way of approximately a thousand elders within the Peruvian Amazon. It provides exact documentation of the buildings of the language and the features they serve, with wealthy exemplification. This research is predicated on major fieldwork on the grounds that 1997, permitting the research to be grounded in textual content facts. certainly one of KK's so much salient typological good points is a morphological contrast among female and male speech in numerous grammatical different types. significant grammatical different types like individual, quantity, stressful, and modality are conveyed via positionally fastened clitics. 5 annoying clitics encode 3 levels of distance into the previous and into the longer term. There also are six epistemic modal clitics, which engage to create a four-way modal process. not one of the twelve suffixes is compulsory, yet, in language use, as many as 4 can ensue jointly on a unmarried verb, via as much as clitics. Syntactically, KK has intransitive and transitive clauses, yet semantically three-place predicates are syntactically encoded through transitive clauses. There are six directive buildings that distinguish levels of pragmatic strength. one other noteworthy element is the a number of sorts of objective clause which fluctuate when it comes to coreference, managed by way of the matrix clause absolutive argument instead of the topic. Clause nominalization is a principal subordination procedure, fairly in relativization, that's mostly accomplished through an absolutive nominalizer. Pragmatically, KK has buildings that explicitly distinguish subtypes of concentration in keeping with scope (narrow/broad) and pragmatic details (contrastive/noncontrastive). This bears on theories approximately no matter if distinction easily emerges from conversational implicature, as opposed to should be explicitly coded by means of devoted grammar. info constitution additionally explains the distribution of alternating pronominal kinds and constituent orders. even though lengthy labeled as Tupí-Guaraní, contemporary resear
xxix, 918 p. : sick. (some col.), maps
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Extra info for A grammar of Kokama-Kokamilla
The first mention of the Omaguas dates from 1542 by the explorer Gaspar de Carvajal,4 who was part of Francisco de Orellana‟s expedition. The following passages show this: “Cumplidos doce días de Mayo llegamos a las provincias de Machiparo, que es muy gran señor y de mucha gente y confina con otro señor tan 4 Carvajal‟s account had been edited by a number of authors. The first versions were published by Oviedo in1855 and by Medina in1895. It was translated into English by Lea and Heaton in1934.
Rama urika. Riay ene tɨma ta tsapukiuy, ta mama ta tsapuki. Awɨrɨ tsukurikana uritsuri rakakura; tɨma ra tseta ikuakaka rana. Raepetsui ra mama tapiaratsui katupiuri. Etse namama, ikian ramama kumitsa. Mariariray ene ajanka. Mariraray na tsapukitsuy, na ra kumitsa. Ta 5 Long time ago, our father used to be everywhere. He came across with this woman-boa who was lying down at the lake shore. Only with a look, he makes her pregnant. Here I‟m gonna leave a son, he says. Next he goes above. Then his son is born, the little boa.
Their settlement has typically been based on a strategy of multiple resource use. Their main economic activities are centered on fishing, agriculture, gathering and hunting. But, of all, fishing is definitely the most important activity to satisfy their needs for both subsistence and market goods. Because of their sophisticated knowledge of the aquatic life and their fishing and water-hunting techniques, they have been traditionally considered the great fishermen of the Amazon (Rivas 2000). Even though it is true that fish are still widely available as a food resource for most of the KK people, it is also true that, because of overfishing and habitat destruction, fish populations have substantially declined in the last decades.