New PDF release: A grammar of the Persian language

By by Sir William Jones.

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I wash-ed my car yesterday. I have wash-ed my hands. The forms in (45) are portmanteau morphemes, morphemes that have more than one function: here they represent the meaning of the root and also carry tense. The data in (45) are examples of ‘total’ suppletion, but ‘partial’ suppletion also exists, where only the main vowel is changed. 2). 4 Reduplication – repeating part of the root reduplication is a strategy whereby part of the root gets repeated (reduplicated). The amount of the root that gets reduplicated can vary.

Looking at (23e), on the other hand, we can see that the derivational morpheme dis is optional in the sense that with or without the derivational morpheme, the sentence is grammatical. Of course, the derived form still has to be the right word type for its function in the sentence for this to work; if you turn a verb into a noun you cannot use it as a verb anymore. 2 Add the inflectional morphemes missing from (23c) and (d) that are required to make the sentences grammatical. Derivation ⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢⅢ In the examples in (21) we saw that the addition of certain affixes may change the word type.

18) (a) (b) (c) (d) (e) (f) (g) (h) (i) (j) (k) (l) f¨urd´o f¨urd´o-k f¨urd´o-k-ben f¨urd´o-ben f¨urd´o-m f¨urd´o-i-m f¨urd´o-nk f¨urd´o-i-nk f¨urd´o-i-nk-ben f¨urd´o-d szob´a-k szob´a-i-m ‘bath’ ‘baths’ ‘in baths’ ‘in (a) bath’ ‘my bath’ ‘my baths’ ‘our bath’ ‘our baths’ ‘in our baths’ ‘your(sg) bath’ ‘rooms’ ‘my rooms’ We can represent what we find in a position class chart. 7 first and label the columns according to the meaning of each suffix. 8 Hungarian position class chart, final version (i) (c) (f) (h) (l) (b) (d) (e) (g) (j) (k) root (-plural) (-possessive) (-location) f¨urd´o f¨urd´o f¨urd´o f¨urd´o szob´a f¨urd´o f¨urd´o f¨urd´o f¨urd´o f¨urd´o szob´a -i -k -i -i -i -k -nk (1pl) -ben -ben -m (1sg) -nk -m -ben -m -nk -d (2sg) -k The brackets show that, as far as we can tell from the data, all the suffixes are optional.

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