By Wallace Chafe
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Extra resources for A Grammar of the Seneca Language
The most common form of the repetitive is *s-; see numerous examples above. Certain other forms are arbitrarily determined by specific morphemic environments. For the most part the cognates of these forms were already present in Proto-Northern-Iroquoian. The form *ts- occurs before a pronominal prefix beginning with y, and the y is lost. In other words, where one might expect *sy, in this particular combination the result is *ts (> dz-): dzeda:ke’ ‘she’s running back’ (cf. yeda:ke’ ‘she’s running’) dzögwa:göh ‘we’re eating it again’ (cf.
Agt) arrived’ (*wa’si’) (*wa’watiyö’) The form *e- occurs before any inclusive person prefix, as well as before any second person prefix except a second person singular agent. In Proto-Northern-Iroquoian the e was part of the pronominal prefix and the factual form that preceded it was w-. Seneca lost the *w from *we-, leaving an e- that was reinterpreted as the form of the factual. 2. Forms of the future prefix. 2). However, before the pronominal prefixes *ho- (masculine singular patient) and *hoti- or *hon- (masculine nonsingular patient), following the loss of the intervocalic *h, the *ë- is denasalized to *e-.
The above examples have adjective-like meanings, but other stative-only roots do not. They too may take either patient or agent prefixes. otga:h hóío’de’ hano:ge’ ha:awi’ ‘it’s making a noise’ ‘he’s working’ ‘he lives, dwells’ ‘he’s carrying it’ Further examples are provided in Chafe (2012b). 3. Forms of the habitual and stative suffixes. The forms of these two aspect suffixes vary considerably, and are determined in mostly arbitrary ways by the last element in the preceding base. The following forms of the habitual aspect suffix have been recorded.