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By Riikka Halme

Kwanyama ('Oshikwanyama' in accordance with the respectable Namibian general) is a Wambo language, and correspondingly belongs to the Bantu languages. it truly is spoken by means of way over part 1000000 humans in South Angola and Namibia.
Certainly this quantity contains the audio system of different closely-related Wambo types in Angola. those languages were studied particularly little, and the research in their tonal structures has been quite missed. the current ebook is the 1st caricature of Kwanyama grammar with a scientific account on tone. the most goal is to supply an research of the tonal procedure of this language. for this reason the research discusses either the lexical tone, i.e. tone as an inherent estate of a lexeme, and the grammatical tone wich marks grammatical homes. the writer lived in a Kwanyama-speaking neighborhood in Angola for roughly part a yr and had the chance there to enhance her linguistic competence. As a researcher she retains to the culture of Generative Phonology within the experience that there are ideas that take the tone styles from the underlying illustration to a binary floor illustration, i.e. tonemes. for you to aid the reader to keep on with the argumentation of the tonal research, this e-book is organised in any such means that the segmental and tonal degrees are mentioned individually, via discussions on tone in nouns, verbs and minor be aware different types. After that, the research is said to the broader context of study on Guthrie's crew R languages, particularly the Wambo languages. ultimately, the reader reveals nominal and verbal paradigms in addition to a few texts, and a vocabulary Kwanyama-Englisch containing approximately 6,000 entries.

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Consider (8), (9) and (10) below. ' (8) above represents base-generated strings which the rule Move of the transformational component of the grammar has not affected. The Ss in (9) and (10), on the other hand, are two possible outcomes of the application of Move to the constituents of the subordinate clauses of perception verbs. In (9), various wh-forms have been moved to a subordinate COMP position, thus in these cases forming headless relatives. ' In (10), the wh-forms have continued their movement from the subordinate S' to the matrix COMP position, thereby forming direct questions and additionally offering evidence for Chomsky's (1977) claim that wh-movement is cyclically COMP-to-COMP.

5/1? 9/1? 7/1? 2/1? 8/1 1 Table 1: Estimates of European and Slave Populations from 1651 to 1741. * F i g u r e s different from those found in Voorhoeve and Lichtveld (p. 3). 1 0 ? Indicates an unknown quantity or either an extrapolation from known facts or an approximation. 11 In interpreting Table (1), first for the English and Dutch plantations and then for the Jewish, probably the most salient pattern is the ratio of slaves to Europeans. 2/1 by 1731. e. roughly 1670 to 1675). The third point is that Baker's Event One, or numerical parity between masters and slaves, took place 22 Suriname, the Saramaka and Saramaccan very early in the history of Suriname.

9 The Dutch captured the Colony in 1667, and the English gradually left until, by 1675, only a handful remained in Suriname. Most went to Jamaica (Byrne (1984b)) accompanied only by the slaves acquired prior to their defeat since the Dutch stipulated that the slaves which arrived after that date were to remain in the Colony (Voorhoeve (1970:55)). The Dutch, for their part, began to rapidly increase the number of their African slaves so that by 1671, the number of new (Dutch) and old (English) slaves was roughly equal (not included are 410 Amerindian slaves).

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