Download PDF by William I. Woods (auth.), Johannes Lehmann, Dirse C. Kern,: Amazonian Dark Earths: Origin Properties Management

By William I. Woods (auth.), Johannes Lehmann, Dirse C. Kern, Brund Glaser, William I. Wodos (eds.)

Amazonian darkish Earths aren't just a testomony to the vanished civilizations of the Amazon Basin, yet may supply the reply to how the big, subtle societies have been capable of maintain extensive agriculture in an atmosphere with generally infertile soils. in the community often called Terra Preta de Indio or Indian black earth, those anomalous soils are even this present day fertile and hugely efficient. although essentially linked to pre-European settlements questions stay no matter if the darkish Earths have been deliberately produced or basically a spinoff of habitation actions. This book presents a accomplished evaluation of our present figuring out of those attention-grabbing soils: their beginning, homes, and administration via time. those new and multidisciplinary views through prime specialists on Amazonian darkish Earths may perhaps pave the best way for the following revolution of soil administration within the humid tropics.

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A terra preta [1903]. Boletim da Seçcão do Fomento Agrícola no Estado do Pará, 3, 35-38. Magnin, J. (1998). Descripción de la Provincia y Misiones de Mainas en el Reino de Quito [1740]. , & Escandell Tur, N. ) (1981). Lope de Aguirre crónicas: 1559-1561. Barcelona: Ediciones Universidad de Barcelona. J. (1954). Environmental limitation on the development of culture. American Anthropologist, 56, 801-824. J. (1957). Environment and culture in the Amazon basin: an appraisal of the theory of environmental determinism.

Colonial and national histories brought about significant demographic and cultural losses for Amerindians in Amazônia, confounding our understanding Of earlier periods. At the same time, extensive resource use may well have decreased, resulting in forests re-growth and restoration of wildlife populations in some areas. This seems to have been the case for the Atlantic rainforest of eastern Brazil. Dean (1995: 33-37) has shown how sixteenth-century chroniclers describe the vegetation of Guanabara Bay – an area heavily settled by Tupinambá Indians for many centuries by this time – as being seemingly composed of different types of secondary forest.

Indeed, Europeans felt there was little that could be learned from the natives. In the middle of the eighteenth century La Condamine, summarizing the thoughts of many, characterized the native inhabitants of Pebas [Peru] as “forest animals…. Before making them Christians, they must be made human” (1986). Not until the end of the eighteenth century was there greater interest in economic activity, and then the focus was primarily upon trade rather than the means of supporting larger populations. Even Humboldt, among the first of the scientific observers, viewed the tropical forest as dominant and man “as a transient guest, who quietly enjoys the gifts of nature” (Humboldt, 1974(1)).

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